Latin America Sees Growth in SCADA Implementations
By Anju Chandra, CSR Market Data Services
According to a recent study conducted by CSR Market Data Services (the Central/South American Electric Utility SCADA/EMS Market Data Report, April 1995), electric utilities in the Central/South American region are planning to invest $287 million in the 30-month period beginning April 1995, on 101 automated-control systems such as supervisory control and data acquisition/energy management systems (SCADA/EMS).
The report also identified 30 consulting, 40 mapboard, 72 communication and 162 remote terminal unit add-on projects with a total dollar value of $27.7 million. This represents a 30-percent increase in the projects identified over the previous study conducted in 1993.
This study and the resulting report is the third such study of the Central/South American electric utilities over a five-year period from 1990 through 1995.
A total of 220 utilities from 35 countries were contacted by CSR over the course of the study. The largest number of projects identified were from Brazil (21.8 percent) followed by Chile, Columbia, Peru, Ecuador and Argentina. The largest dollar value of projects identified were also from Brazil (21.2 percent) followed by Mexico, Argentina, Paraguay, Colombia and Peru. An analysis of utility structure and control system implementations is detailed below for the following countries: Brazil, Argentina, Mexico, Colombia and Chile.
Brazil topped the SCADA/EMS survey in both the number (63) and dollar value ($61.1 million) of projects identified. The country is going through a massive privatization program especially in the electric sector. The role of the major state-owned utility Centrais Elàƒ©tricas Brasileiras SA (ELETROBRAS) is being reformulated in light of ongoing privatization.
ELETROBRAS, along with its four subsidiaries, is responsible for most of the electricity generated, transmitted and distributed in Brazil. Two interconnected regional grids serve the country. One grid serves the Northeastern region and part of the Eastern Amazonia region. The other grid serves the Southern, Southeastern and the Midwestern regions. Isolated systems, mostly in Amazonia, account for less than 2.5 percent of the total generation.
ELETROBRAS operates a national control center located at Brasilia that is equipped with an EMS installed by Sodetag-Tai of France in 1988. The EMS is interconnected with nine major electric utilities. Microwave is used as the communication link. The master computer is a VAX 8650 with a dual configuration.
Furnas Centrais Elàƒ©ctricas (FURNAS) has a central control center (CCC) located at Rio de Janeiro and four area-control centers (ACC) located at Gacarapagua, Sao Paulo, Minas Gerais and Goias/Tumbiaras. The CCC is equipped with an EMS installed by IESA-International de Engenharia SA in 1991. The master computer is a VAX 11/785 with a triple configuration. FURNAS is planning to upgrade its EMS and upgrade the dynamic mapboard to a projection screen. Each of the ACCs is equipped with a SCADA system.
Companhia Hidroelàƒ©trica de San Francisco (CHESF) has a CCC located at Recife and five ACCs located at Recife, Salvador, Paulo Afonso, Fordaleza and Peresina. The CCC is equipped with an EMS installed by Leeds and Northrup in 1989. The master computer is a dual Encore Gould 32/9750. There is a dynamic mapboard installed by Mauell Corp. The communication modes used are microwave, power-line carrier and radio. CHESF is planning to upgrade the master computer of the EMS and three SCADA systems installed at the ACCs.
Privatization of the power sector in Argentina started in 1992 and about 70 percent of the electric utilities have been privatized so far. A large part of generation is now handled by private companies. Ente Nacional Regulador de la Electricidad is the national regulatory organization for the power sector. Compania Administradora del Mercado Mayorista Electrico Sociedad Anonima (CAMMESA) is an administrative body in charge of controlling the national interconnected system and dispatching electric power.
CAMMESA has an EMS installed by Siemens in 1979 at its CCC. The EMS is used to monitor and control the Argentine Interconnection System (Sistema Argentino de Interconecciàƒ³n) and the systems of the MEM (Mercado Electrico Mayorista) member companies. The communication methods used are microwave links and power line carrier. CAMMESA is planning to replace the EMS. The master computer will be workstation based and will replace the existing dual Siemens 340 computers.
Mexico`s electricity sector is controlled by the Comisiàƒ³n Federal de Electricidad (CFE). However, private-sector participation is allowed in the area of power generation as long as all power generated is delivered to CFE.
CFE has a national control center (NCC) located in Mexico City called CENACE. In addition, there are eight ACCs located at Hermosillo (Northwest), Gàƒ³mez Palachio (De Norte), Monterrey (Northeast), Guadelajara (West), Puebla (Oriental), Mexico City (Central), Merida (Yucatan) and Mexicali. There is one distribution control center at Baja.
The NCC has an EMS installed by Harris Controls in 1984. The master computer is a Harris 9400 with a quad configuration. There are seven consoles with 11 cathode-ray tubes (CRTs) and 400 remote terminal units (RTUs) that are controlled using radio, power line carrier, microwave, fiber-optics and satellite communication links. There are plans to replace the EMS within the next year. The project will be implemented in three phases.
Each of the ACCs at Mexico City, Merida, Hermosillo and Gàƒ³mez Palachio has a SCADA system installed by Harris Controls. The ACCs at Monterrey and Guadelajara have a SCADA system installed by Valmet Corp. The ACC at Puebla has a SCADA system installed by Advanced Control Systems whereas the one at Mexicali has a SCADA system installed by Cegelec.
There are plans to replace the SCADA systems with EMS at the following six ACCs: Hermosillo (Northwest), Gàƒ³mez Palachio (De Norte), Monterrey (Northeast), Guadelajara (West), Puebla (Oriental) and Mexico City (Central). There are plans to install 10 distribution SCADA systems at locations yet to be determined.
There are several national, regional and local utilities responsible for the generation, transmission and distribution of power in Colombia. Interconexiàƒ³n Elàƒ©ctrica SA (ISA) is responsible for the overall generation and transmission planning, as well as coordinating of the national electric system. Instituto Colombiano de Energàƒa Elàƒ©ctrica develops and coordinates Colombia`s national power plan. Corporaciàƒ³n Elàƒ©ctrica de la Costa Atlantica (CORELCA) and Corporaciàƒ³n Autonoma Regional del Valle del Cauca serve the Atlantic coast and southwestern Colombia. Two major government utilities–Empresas Publicas de Medellàƒn (EPM) and Empresa de Energàƒa de Bogotàƒ¡ (EEB)–serve about 40 percent of Columbia`s population.
CORELCA has one control center that has a SCADA/AGC system installed by Siemens in 1982. The master computers are Siemens R40 with a triple configuration, Siemens R30 and a VAX 8350 each with a dual configuration. There are three consoles with six CRTs and the SCADA/AGC system controls 40 RTUs via leased telephone lines, power line carriers and microwave links. There are plans to upgrade or replace this system with an EMS.
ISA has one control center that is equipped with an EMS installed by ABB in 1980. The master computer is a dual VAX 4000 and there are six consoles with 12 CRTs. The system controls 40 RTUs via fiber-optics, microwave and power-line carriers. There are plans to upgrade the EMS within the next one year. Inter American Development Bank has been asked to finance this project.
EEB has an EMS installed by ABB in 1989 at its CCC. The master computer is a dual MDC 32/85 and Fend DS-8. There are eight consoles with 29 CRTs. Leased lines, radio, power-line carrier and fiber-optics are used to communicate with the 60 RTUs. There is a dynamic mapboard also supplied by ABB. There are plans to upgrade the EMS within the next year. The ACC at Guavio has a hydro SCADA system installed by Siemens in 1993. There is one console with two CRTs and leased lines, radio and fiber-optics are used to communicate with five RTUs.
EPM has a CCC at Medellin and an ACC at Guadelupe. The CCC has an EMS installed by ABB in 1989. The master computer is a MODCOMP 32/85L with a dual configuration. There are five consoles with nine CRTs and the system controls 35 RTUs via microwave, fiber-optics and power-line carriers. The ACC has a SCADA system also installed by ABB in 1989. The master computer is a dual MODCOMP Classic 11/45. There are two consoles with four CRTs.
Chile is in the process of privatizing generation, transmission and distribution. Currently, Comision Nacional de Energia oversees all activities in the power sector. Empresa Nacional de Electricidad SA (ENDESA), Compaàƒ±ia Chilena de Generaciàƒ³n Elàƒ©ctrica SA (CHILGENER) and Empresa Elàƒ©ctrica Colbàƒºn-Machicura SA (COLBUN) together supply about 90 percent of the public power. The Central Interconnected System is the major transmission and distribution system and stretches 2,100 kms from Taltal in the north to Chiloe in the south.
ENDESA has a CCC at Santiago and four ACCs located at Pan de Azàƒºcar, Cerro Navàƒa, Concepciàƒ³n and Valdivàƒa. The CCC is equipped with an EMS installed by Ferranti International Controls in 1993. The master computer is an MDC 7840 with a dual configuration and the control center has 13 consoles with 20 CRTs. The EMS controls 93 RTUs via radio and microwave links. There is a dynamic mapboard supplied by Siemens. ENDESA is planning to upgrade the EMS within the next year. Each of the four ACCs has a SCADA system also installed by Ferranti in 1983. The master computer at each of the four ACCs is a dual MDC 11/55. The communication links between the control center and the RTUs is provided by radio, microwave and power-line carriers. Each of the four ACCs has a dynamic mapboard installed by Mauell Corp.
CHILGENER has an EMS installed by Landis and Gyr in 1988 at its control center. The master computer is a PDP 11/84 with a dual configuration. Possible plans are to replace the EMS within the next two years and go in for a dual workstation-based system. The communication link is provided by microwave and power-line carriers.
Distribuadora Chilectra Metropolitana has an EMS supplied by Westinghouse which runs on two Micro VAX 3600s and a VAX 11/780.
COLBUN has a hydro SCADA system installed by Ferranti International Controls in 1985. The master computer is a MODCOMP Classic II with a dual configuration and there are three consoles with six CRTs. The hydro SCADA system controls 10 RTUs through microwave, fiber-optics, radio and power-line carriers. The control center has a dynamic mapboard installed by Ferranti.
Power Industry Trends for Latin America
Most of the countries in the Central/South American region are in the process of restructuring their power sector to make it more efficient. So far, the power sector in the region has been beset with several problems including poor management and low efficiency in the use of electric power. Private sector participation is being encouraged in the areas of generation, transmission and distribution.
Latin American Energy Organization estimates that electric power demand in the Central/South American region will grow at an annual average rate of 4.6 percent between 1990 and 2000. The trends indicate a decline in energy intensity and an increase in per capita consumption.
It is estimated that the electric power sector will need investments of nearly $19 billion for the period 1990 to 2000. About 88 percent of this will be concentrated in the following six countries: Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Mexico and Venezuela. Capacity additions during this period are estimated to be about 41.6 GW out of which 85 percent will come from hydropower, 12 percent from oil products, natural gas and coal-based plants, and the rest from geothermal and nuclear plants. In order to meet expanding power and infrastructure needs in Latin America, a combined effort by governments, lending institutions and the private sector will be necessary.